哥釉瓷器从色泽区分,有月白、灰黄、粉青、灰青、油灰、深浅米黄等种类。 哥窑瓷最显著的特征是釉色沉厚细腻,光泽莹润,如同凝脂;若置之于显微镜下,可见瓷釉中蕴含的气泡如同聚沫串珠,凝腻的釉面间迸裂有大小不一,或密匝或疏落的冰裂状网纹,其网纹之色浅黄者宛若金丝,细黑者如铁线,二者互相交织,因而被名之为 “ 金丝 ” “ 铁线 ” 。 宋代哥窑胎质坚细,瓷器口沿尖窄,厚釉在瓷器口沿不能存留,垂釉多在口沿边稍下处形成略微凸出之环形带,因口沿处胎骨略黯而被称之为 “ 紫口 ” ,此为宋哥窑瓷之一绝,尽管以后历代有许多仿宋哥窑,但在烧制上皆未能臻此绝艺。
Ge glaze porcelain can be divided into moon white, gray yellow, pink blue, gray blue, putty, deep and light beige, etc. The most remarkable feature of Ge kiln porcelain is that the glaze is thick and delicate, lustrous and lustrous, like coagulating grease. If placed under a microscope, it can be seen that the bubbles contained in the glaze are like foam beads, and the greasy glaze is split with different sizes, or dense turns or scattered ice cracks. The color of the netting patterns is light yellow like gold wire, and the thin black one is like iron wire. Therefore, it is called "Ge Yao porcelain"“ Gold wire and iron wire. The body of Ge kiln in Song Dynasty is hard and thin, and the mouth of porcelain is narrow. Thick glaze can't be retained at the mouth edge. The vertical glaze mostly forms a slightly protruding ring belt at the lower part of the mouth edge. It is called "Zikou" because the fetal bone at the mouth edge is slightly dark. This is one of the unique porcelain of song Ge kiln. Although there are many imitations of song Ge kiln in the later dynasties, none of them can achieve this unique skill in firing.
Since Ge Yao porcelain in Song Dynasty is so precious, where was its kiln site at that time?
Ge kiln is one of the five famous kilns in Song Dynasty. According to historical records, in the Southern Song Dynasty, there were two brothers in the Zhangjia family in Longquan, Zhejiang Province. Both brothers were engaged in pottery. Each of them owned a kiln. The name of the elder brother's kiln was Ge kiln, and the younger brother's kiln was also called Longquan kiln.
Ge kiln porcelain is characterized by glaze inside and outside, uniform and smooth, crystal clear and moist, not only buckle the porcelain sound clear, but also upright and generous shape, soft and smooth contour. Ge kiln ware, belonging to celadon system, wins by glaze color.
宋代哥窑在后世备受人们青睐,元明清仿制者颇多,且各有风格,被称为仿哥窑或哥釉,但其制作工艺已不能与宋代哥窑相媲美。清乾隆帝尤喜赏宋代哥窑,尝欣然作诗赞云: “ 铁足圆腰冰裂纹,宣成踵此夫华纷。”
Daige kiln is favored by people in later generations. There are many imitators in yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, and each has its own style. It is called imitation Ge kiln or Ge glaze, but its production technology can not be compared with that of Song Dynasty. Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty was especially fond of appreciating the Ge kiln of the Song Dynasty. He wrote poems praising the saying: "iron feet round waist, ice
crack, Xuan Cheng heel, this husband Hua Fen."
The identification of Ge kiln porcelain mainly focuses on the shape, fetal bone and glaze color. It is black, delicate and solid. The glaze is thick and moist, and there are large and small patterns on the glaze. The utensils are mainly bottles, furnaces, washes, bowls and jars.
60 年代时,浙江省文物考古单位曾对龙泉大窑等几处窑址进行了发掘,发现不少黑胎片纹青瓷,大部分为日常生活用瓷。但与另一部分传世的哥窑器物相对照,这二种哥窑的造型、胎色、釉面和纹片均有不同之处。为此,文物界将这些原藏于宫廷、现收藏于故宫博物院、上海博物馆及流散于民间和国外的这类哥窑器称之为“ 传世哥窑 ” 。
In the 1960s, the cultural relics and Archaeology units of Zhejiang Province excavated several kiln sites, such as Longquan kiln, and found many pieces of celadon with black body, most of which were used in daily life. However, compared with the other parts of Ge ware handed down, the two kinds of Ge kiln are different in shape, body color, glaze and pattern. For this reason, the cultural relic circles call these Ge kilns, which were originally collected in the Palace Museum, now in the Palace Museum, Shanghai Museum and scattered among the people and abroad, as "handed down Ge Yao".
The porcelain of Ge kiln is mainly imitated the ancient bronze ware. Such as fish ear stove, milk nail five foot stove, gallbladder bottle, octagonal wearing bottle, string shaped bottle, etc., there are also plates, bowls, washing and so on. It has a thick fetal bone and fine texture, and most of it is made with supporting nails at the bottom of the vessel when it is burned. However, the Longquan Ge kiln, which is discovered at present, is made without the support nails. The origin of this world-famous Ge kiln has not been found yet, and remains to be determined by archaeologists.